Monday, January 20, 2020
Romanticism Roughly from 1815 to 1910, this period of time is called the romantic period. At this period, all arts are transforming from classic arts by having greater emphasis on the qualities of remoteness and strangeness in essence. The influence of romanticism in music particularly, has shown that romantic composers value the freedom of expression, movement, passion, and endless pursuit of the unattainable fantasy and imagination. The composers of the romantic period are in search of new subject matters, more emotional and are more expressive of their feelings as they are not bounded by structural rules in classical music where order, equilibrium, control and perfection are deemed important (Dorak, 2000). The characteristics of romantic music are influenced by the Romantic Movement, where the arts of literature and painting play a great role in influencing romantic music. Other evidence of non-musical influences in romantic music is the popularity of romantic poetry during that era. Poems, opera arias and works form great romantic poets are transformed into instrumental works and composers like Schubert uses musical elements such as melodies inspired by poetry in his works (http://absoluteastronomy.com). The musical language itself has shown that romantic music is different from the rest of the music before its time. Extended tonal and harmonic elements are noticed in romantic music compared to those in the classical era, where chromaticism, the usage of dissonance, and modulations are used extensively. Other societal practice during romanticism is the Romantic Opera. In comparison to the classical and baroque opera, romantic opera has a continuous flow of music in each scene and soon, people pay less attention to tenors and pays equal attention to choruses. To name a few of many composers for romantic operas, Wagner and Bizet are known for their works for romantic opera during the romantic era. Romantic music is also influenced by folk music, tunes, rhythms and themes as many romantic composers wrote nationalist music, which is inspired from folk dances and songs, during the romantic period (http://absoluteastronomy.com). Another factor that contributed to romantic music in defining its traits is the instrumentation.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
. Assume a monopolist faces a market demand curve P = 100 Ã¢â¬â 2Q, and has the short-run total cost function C = 640 + 20Q. What is the profit-maximizing level of output? What are profits? Graph the marginal revenue, marginal cost, and demand curves, and show the area that represents deadweight loss on the graph. 3. In question 2, what would price and output be if the firm priced at socially efficient (competitive) levels? What is the magnitude of the deadweight loss caused by monopoly pricing? 4. Show that if a firm is a natural monopoly, a government policy that forces marginal cost pricing will result in losses for the firm. . Suppose a change in technology available to fringe firms increases their elasticity of supply, altering the total fringe supply curve from p = 5 + Q, to p = 5 + 2Q. If market demand is Q = 20 Ã¢â¬â p, show the change in the residual demand curve using a graph. Is the dominant firm better off or worse off after the change? 6. If a monopolist has consta nt marginal cost MC = 20, and faces demand p = 80 Ã¢â¬â Q, what is the effect on consumer surplus of a $5 per unit tax on sellers? Is the tax revenue collected less than, equal to, or greater than the consumer surplus loss plus the reduction in profits? 7.Suppose a legislator introduced a bill that would decrease patent life for new drugs from 17 years to 10 years, based on the argument that it would reduce deadweight loss through lower prices. What argument could you make against such a change? 8. Suppose a monopoly is for sale. What specifically must be purchased by the buyer in order to retain its market position? How much would it be worth? 9. Suppose a monopolist faces a market demand curve Q = 50 Ã¢â¬â p. If marginal cost is constant and equal to zero, what is the magnitude of the welfare loss? If marginal cost increases to MC = 10, does welfare loss increase or decrease?Use a graph to explain your answer. 10. The chapter notes that one possible alternative to regulation is for the government to encourage competition. Would this be an efficient mechanism to increase efficiency in an industry where the incumbent firm is a natural monopoly? 11. If a monopoly firm sells a product with price $100, whose marginal cost is $30. What is the price/ marginal cost ratio? What is the Lerner Index? And what is the demand elasticity the firm believes it faces? 12. Suppose a monopoly firm with a constant marginal cost 10 faces an inverse linear demand function p = 50 Ã¢â¬â Q.What would be the profit-maximizing price and quantity if its marginal cost doubles? How does it compare to the outcome with original cost? Answers 2. First, derive the MR and MC functions; then set MC = MR and solve. See Figure 11. 1. Deadweight loss is equal to area abc. P = 100 ? 2Q R = 100Q ? 2Q 2 MR = dR/dQ = 100 ? 4Q MC = 20 100 ? 4Q = 20 Q* = 20 p* = 60 ? = 1200 ? 1040 = 160 Figure 11. 1 3. To solve for the competitive price and output, set MC = p. 20 = 100 ? 2Q * QC = 40 * pC = 20 The magnitude of the deadweight loss is $400, which is the area of triangle abc in Figure 11. 1. 4. See Figure 11. 2.If the firm is a natural monopoly, AC falls throughout the range of demand. When AC is falling, MC is below AC. By forcing the firm to price at marginal cost, revenue would be less than cost, and the firm would incur losses equal to area abcd. Figure 11. 2 5. See Figure 11. 3. The change in technology reduces the slope of the fringe firm supply curve, allowing them to supply more of the total demand at all prices above $5, making the dominant firm worse off. Figure 11. 3 6. The $5 tax increases MC to $25. Quantity falls from 30 to 27. 5, and price increases from $50 to $52. 50. Consumer surplus falls by $71. 875 (from $450 to $378. 25). Profits fall by $143. 75 (from $900 to $756. 25). Tax revenue collected is $137. 50 ($5 ? 27. 5 = $137. 50). See Figure 11. 4. Figure 11. 4 7. In order for the legislation to have a net positive effect, any social cost must be more tha n offset by the lower prices when the patent expires. Firms would engage in less research and development. If a firm believed that a project could only become profitable in the 11th through 17th year of the patent, it would not be funded, or may be funded at a less than efficient level. The reduction in health that occurs as a result represents the social cost of the policy. . The buyer would have to purchase whatever the source is of the monopolistÃ¢â¬â¢s barrier to entry, for example, a patent, or the control of a resource needed for production. The value of a barrier to entry is the discounted stream of profits that a monopolist could expect to earn from that monopoly. In the case of a patent it would be the discounted stream of profits that could be earned in the remaining years before the patent expires. 9. See Figure 11. 5. When marginal cost is zero, the firm sells 25 units of output for $25 per unit. The welfare loss is equal to the area of triangle abc, or $312. 50.When m arginal cost increases to $10, the firm reduces output to 20, and the new welfare loss is def, or $250. 00. Figure 11. 5 10. No. If the incumbent firm is a natural monopoly, to encourage entry through any form of assistance or subsidy will reduce overall efficiency and lead to increased prices, because cost increases as per-firm output decreases. 11. The price/marginal cost ratio will be 100/30 = 3. 33. Its Lerner Index is 70/100 = 0. 7 and the firm believes it faces a demand elasticity of Ã¢â¬â1. 43. 12. Under MC = 10, we have 10 = 50 Ã¢â¬â 2Q, hence Q = 20 and p = 30. With the new marginal cost, we have 20 = 50 Ã¢â¬â 2Q. Hence Q = 15 and p = 35.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Sample details Pages: 17 Words: 5046 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? CHAPTER 2 Employee innovation behaviour has been defined as the intentional behaviour of an individual to introduce and/or apply new ideas, products, processes, and procedures to his or her work role, unit, or organization (West Farr, 1989, 1990b). Examples of employee innovative behaviour in the workplace include introducing new technologies and techniques, suggesting new ways to achieve objectives, trying new ways of performing work tasks, and facilitating the implementation of new ideas. Several points in the definition on employee innovation proposed by West and Farr (1989, 1990b) are worth noting. Firstly, employee innovative behaviours include behaviours pertaining to both the introduction and the application or implementation of new ideas, products, processes and procedures by the employees. This definition thus includes a variety of behaviours pertaining to the innovation processes in an organisation. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Definition And Description Of Employee Innovation Behaviour" essay for you Create order Secondly, this definition takes into account both technical innovations (the introduction or application of new technologies, products, and services) and administrative innovations (the introduction or application of new procedures and policies) (Van de Ven, 1986). Technical innovations are innovations that occur in the primary work activity of the organization; administrative innovations are innovations that occur in the social system of an organization (Daft, 1978; Damanpour Evan, 1984). Examples of technical innovation include the implementation of an idea for a new product or the introduction of new elements in an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s production process. Examples of administrative innovation include the implementation of new policies of recruitment, allocating resources, and reward. Individual innovative behaviours could be behaviours pertaining to the introduction or implementation of both technical and administrative innovations. Thirdly, the new ideas, products, processes, and procedures being introduced or implemented do not have to be absolutely new to the field. They only need to be new relative to the unit of adoption. For example, an employee is innovating when he introduces an IT system that has not been used in his organization before. This technology doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t have to be a new invention and could have been used in other organizations before. And finally, innovative behaviours include not only those behaviours leading to innovations within the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role but also behaviours that initiate or facilitate innovations in higher level units such as the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work group, department, or the entire organization (West Farr 1989. 2.2 Construction of the Terminology Used in the Dissertation Several similar terminologies to employee innovation exist in the literature. A brief discussion about how those terminologies are similar to and different from the framework of employee innovative behaviour will prevent potential confusion and help our understanding of employee innovative behaviour. One similar construct is individual creative behaviour. Creativity refers to the production and introduction of novel and useful ideas, products, or processes (Amabile, 1988; Oldham Cummings, 1996; Shalley, 1995; Woodman, Sawyer, Griffin, 1993). Individual creative behaviours are behaviours pertaining to the generation of such novel and useful ideas, products, or processes. Creative behaviour is closely linked to innovative behaviour and it can be considered as one type of innovative behaviour. However, innovative behaviours include a broader range of behaviours than just creative behaviours. Innovative behaviours include both the introduction of self-generated ideas (creative behaviou r) and the introduction and implementation of new ideas generated by other people and organizations. Creativity requires absolute novelty of the idea whereas innovation only requires relative novelty of the idea to the unit of adoption (King, 1990; Woodman, Sawyer, Griffin, 1993).Therefore, adopting a new policy from another organization to the current organization would be innovative but not creative. Also, the definition of creativity includes an inherent requirement for the idea or product to be useful. The phenomenon of innovative behaviour doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t include a usefulness judgment in itself. An innovative attempt could result in different possible consequences for the organization. Yet an ineffective innovation is still an innovation. Also, creative behaviour concerns the generation of ideas whereas innovative behaviour includes both the generation or introduction and the application or implementation of the new ideas (Amabile, 1988; Scott Bruce, 1994; Zhou, 1998 , 2003). Another related concept to employee innovation is role innovation. Role innovation is the introduction of significant new behaviours into a pre-existing role (West, 1987a, 1987b). Role innovation is usually studied in the context of job change and relocation (e.g., Allen Meyer, 1990; Ashford Saks, 1996; Munton West, 1995; Nicholson, 1984; West Rushton, 1989). The reference for comparison in role innovation is the pre-existing job role. It is considered an act of role innovation, if the way the current job holder does his job is different from the way the previous job holder did it or from the way other people currently do the same job in the same organization. Role innovation is related to innovative behaviour in the sense that introducing new behaviours and procedures into an existing work role is one type of innovative behaviour. However, these two concepts are still different. Role innovation only changes processes within an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role. Innovative behaviours, however, is not limited to innovations occurring in the work role alone but also in the department, unit, and the organization. In addition, all innovative behaviours cannot be considered as role innovation. For example, developing new ideas and products is part of the job profile for some organizational positions (e.g. the RD department). People in those job positions routinely introduce new products and procedures into the organization and therefore frequently engage in innovative behaviour. However, since it is part of their existing job or work role, those behaviours are not considered as role innovation. Another similar concept is personal initiative. Frese, Kring, Soose, and Zempel (1996: 38) defined personal initiative as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa behavior syndrome resulting in an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s taking an active and self-starting approach to work and going beyond what is formally required in a given job. More specifically, personal initiative is characterized by the following aspects: it (1) is consistent with the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s mission; (2) has a long-term focus; (3) is goal-directed and action-oriented; (4) is persistent in the face of barriers and setbacks, and (5) is self-starting and proactive.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Some individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s behaviour in the workplace such as voluntary suggestion of new ideas to the organization can be seen as both personal initiative and innovative behaviours. However, not all personal initiative behaviours are innovative behaviours. Personal initiative could include both quantitative and qualitative initiatives. Quanti tative initiatives are those activities that only require additional energy. Those activities do result into the application of new ideas, products, and procedures into the workplace and therefore are not innovative behaviours. Moreover, personal initiative is voluntary in nature of the behaviour whereas innovative behaviours do not have to be beyond the formal job requirement. In a nutshell, creative behaviour, role innovation and personal initiative are all related to but different from the construct of individual innovative behaviour. Differentiating these constructs will further clarify the concept of employee innovative behaviour. At the same time, the existing similarities suggest the possibility that the literatures devoted to these related constructs could inform research on innovative behaviours. 2.3 Employee Innovation and Image Outcome Expectations Why do employees innovate in an organisation? A piece of wisdom reiterated by learning theories and motivation theories is the importance of outcome expectations in determining human innovative behaviour. The operant conditioning theory of learning stresses the importance of the Law of Effect, which states that behaviour which appears to lead to a positive consequence tends to be repeated, while behaviour that leads to a negative consequence tends not to be repeated (Thorndike, 1911). BanduraÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s social learning theory (1977) proposed that people learn about the consequences expected for certain behaviours not only from their own experiences but also from observing others in the workplace. To summarize, operant conditioning theory and social learning theory advocates that people develop outcome expectations of certain behaviours either from direct experiences or from vicarious learning. The outcome expectations, in turn, guide their future behaviour in the workplace. The effects of outcome expectations on behaviour are more directly addressed in VroomÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectancy theory of motivation (1964). The renowned expectancy theory of motivation suggests that an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s motivational force to perform an act is determined by his expectancies that the act will be followed by the attainment of certain first-level outcomes (expectancy), that these first-level outcomes will lead to certain second-level outcomes (instrumentality), and the value of these second-level outcomes (valence). The importance of outcome expectations is depicted by the concept of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âexpectancy,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? which is a subjective belief concerning the likelihood that a behaviour will lead to particular first-level outcomes (Vroom, 1964). A similar observation of the importance of outcome expectations in affecting individual behavioural intentions can also be found in Ajzen and FishbeinÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s theory of reasoned action (1980). Outcome expectations guide innovative behaviours in the workplace. In the case of employee innovative behaviour, what are the major outcome expectations that affect employee innovation at work? Two major types of outcome expectations will impact employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ decision to engage in innovative behaviours: expected performance outcomes and expected image outcomes. Expected performance outcomes are employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ expectations of how his or her innovative behaviours would affect the performance or efficiency of the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work role or unit. Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviours would affect other organization membersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ perceptions of him or her. Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviours would affect the perceptions of the other members of the organisation towards him or her. The linkage of performance and image outcomes at the individual level is comparable to the differentiation between organization efficiency and legitimacy as suggested by institutional theory (Meyer Rowan, 1977). The organizations compete for social as well as economic fitness in the institutional perspective (DiMaggio Powell, 1983). Whereas the economic fitness or organization efficiency frontier enhance the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s profits and competitive advantages, social fitness brings legitimacy which helps the organization gain stability, resources and hence survival. Several studies have recently brought such an institutional perspective into the study of innovation processes by highlighting the impacts of both efficiency outcomes and potential legitimacy outcomes on innovation adoption decisions. Tolbert and Zucker (1983) found that an early adoption of civil service is related to internal organizational requirements while late adoption is related to institutional de finitions of legitimate structural form Westphal, Gulati and Shortell (1997) in their research work found out that early adopters can customize Total Quality Management (TQM) practices for efficiency gains, while later adopters gain legitimacy from adopting the normative form of TQM programs. Results from both the empirical studies conclude that an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decision to adopt an innovation is influenced by both internal efficiency considerations (i.e., the efficiency outcome) and external legitimacy considerations (i.e., the image outcome). The results not only supports the importance of considering both outcomes in the innovation process but also suggests that their relative impact on innovation adoption will vary in different situations. Abrahamson (1991) suggested a typology that highlights the dominant efficient choice paradigm and other less dominant perspectives that can be used to guide innovation research. The dominant paradigm is the efficient choice perspective (i.e., the efficiency-oriented perspective), which conceptualises organizations as rational entities who always adopt innovations that can improve organization efficiency or performance. On the other hand, two other perspectives Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" the fashion and fad perspectives Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" stresses on the importance of social-political processes by suggesting that organizations sometimes adopt innovations for their symbolic meaning, signalling innovativeness, rather than to boost organizationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ economic performance. The impacts of expected performance outcomes and expected image outcomes on employee innovative behaviour represents the efficiency-oriented and the social-political motives for employee innovation, respectively (s ee Figure 1). Figure 1 Outcome Expectations and Employee Innovation Behaviour Note: Except for those marked with negative signs, all links in the model are hypothesized to be positive. Source: Diagram adapted from Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies by West Farr (1990a). 2.4 The Efficiency-Oriented Perspective of Expected Performance Outcomes: The efficiency-oriented perspective in understanding employee innovation behaviour suggests that one major reason people innovate is to bring performance gains. Although assumed to be one of the major motivational reasons in this dominating paradigm, few studies have directly tested the effect of such expected performance outcomes on innovative behaviour. This dissertation provides a hypothesis for testing the outcome of the effects of such expectation and on employee innovation behaviour at work. Expected image outcomes have been considered different from the concept of subjective norm in the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen Fishbein, 1980) in this study. The subjective norm concept refers to a personÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s belief about whether significant others think that he or she should engage in the behaviour. Although both the concepts are related to potential social outcomes of employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ behaviour, expected image outcomes refer to expected perceptions from a po tential audience (i.e., other employees in the organization) rather than the concern for the approval or disapproval of others. Image outcome expectations can be influenced by other factors as well such as relationship quality, peer expectations, and job requirements. The Literature available on impression management provides an interesting distinction between defensive and assertive impression management (Arkin, 1981; Schlenker, 1980). Tetlock Manstead (1985:61) provides a good discussion on this distinction: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDefensive impression management is to protect an employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ established social image; it is triggered by negative affective states such as embarrassment and shame. Whereas assertive impression management is designed to improve an employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ social image; it is triggered by perceived opportunities for creating favourable impressions on others.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Therefore the difference between avoiding image risks and pursuing image enhancement represent different affective states and individual motives. Consulting the impression management literature, the dissertation hypothesizes two major types of image outcome expectations that may affect an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decision to engage in innovative behaviour. Firstly, expected image loss risk will constrain people from demonstrating innovative behaviour. An employee may decide to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âplay it safeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? and try and avoid being innovative in order to look socially appropriate and prevent potential image loss. Showing such a tendency to avoid negative evaluations represents the protective self-presentation (Arkin, 1981) or defensive impression management motive (Tetlock Manstead, 1985). The self-protective motive shows that expected image risks will restrict the tendency of an employee to engage in innovative behaviour (refer Figure 1). On the other hand, people may feel the need to innovate because they may see potential opportunity to enhance work efficiency. For example, a high-performing employee may want to introduce a new work technique because he or she perceives opportunities to further improve efficiency. Contrary to the problem-driven construct this latter construct is consistent with the more contemporary vision-guided change model (Cooperrider Srivastva, 1987; Cummings Worley, 2005; Watkins Mohr, 2001) and possibility-driven logic of change (Ford Ford, 1994). This approach suggests that changes can be initiated not only to solve existing problems but also to pursue further improvement toward an ideal vision. Efficiency and performance improvement increases the competitiveness and success of an employee. Regardless of the purpose being is to fix existing performance problems or to explore potential benefits, people will be more likely to engage in innovative behaviour if they expect that the introduction of new ideas, products, procedures, or processes would bring positive performance outcomes to his or her work or job role (refer Figure 1). Therefore expected performance outcomes represent the efficiency-oriented perspective in understanding innovation. This approach suggests that people innovate because they expect positive results in performance gains. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the efficiency-oriented perspective of expected performance outcomes: Hypothesis 1: Expected positive performance outcomes are positively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.5 The Social-Political Perspective of Expected Image Outcomes Expected image outcomes are an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations about how his or her innovative behaviour would impact the perceptions of the other members of the organisation about him or her. Ashford, Rothbard, Piderit, and Dutton (1998), consider expected image outcomes as Employees may engage in innovative behaviour as a conscious effort to improve image. The employees engaging in innovative behaviour to pursue image gain depict the assertive impression management motive (Rioux Penner, 2001). An apt example will be employees suggesting new ideas to managers to appear competent and conscientious. Sutton and HargadonÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1996) designed a study to analyse self-enhancing motive and engineersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ competitive behaviours in brainstorming sessions. The self enhancing motive suggests that expected image gains will increase employee innovative behaviour at work (refer Figure 1). In line with the social-political perspective in understanding innovati on, both avoiding image risks (the self-protective impression management motive) and pursuing image gains (the self-enhancing impression management motive) emphasize the importance of social-political considerations in determining employee innovative behaviour in the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the social-political perspective of expected image of expected image outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 2(a): Expected image risks are negatively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 2(b): Expected image gains are positively related to employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6 Conceptual Model for Employee Innovation Behaviour Performance and image outcome expectations are proximal determinants which determine employee innovation in the workplace and also serve as intermediate processes by which more distal individual differences and contextual antecedents affect employee innovation capabilities (West Farr, 1989). An analysis of how distal antecedent factors influence expectations of outcomes and therefore employee innovative behaviour is important for at least two reasons. Firstly, it addresses the question of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhowÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? distal individual differences of employees and contextual factors affect employee innovation behaviour by examining the intermediate psychological processes. Secondly, it explains the sources of variance in employee performance and image outcome expectations across individuals and situations. Without the intention of providing an all exclusive list, the following five distal antecedent factors were considered as especially important for employee innovation behaviour: Perceived organization support for innovation, supervisor relationship quality, innovativeness as job requirement, reputation as innovative, and dissatisfaction with the status quo. These aforementioned antecedents were chosen because they are among the most studied in the literature and they represent different angles to understand employee innovative behaviour. The five proximal antecedents were taken together to form the conceptual model for testing employee innovation behaviour in this dissertation. Figure 2 Diagram of Conceptual Model for Employee Innovation Behaviour Note: Except for all those links marked with negative signs, all other links in the model are hypothesized to be positive. Source: Diagram adapted from Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies by West Farr (1990a) 2.6.1 Perceived Organization Support for Innovation Organization support for innovation in terms of pro-innovation climate, resources, and time allocation, is one of the primary environmental qualities that promote innovation and creativity (Amabile, 1988; Kanter, 1988). This dissertation explores performance and image outcome expectations as important intermediate processes and tries to explain why such organization support affects innovative behaviour. If an organizational environment favours change rather than tradition for its growth and development, its members will seek to initiate change in order to be culturally appropriate (Farr Ford, 1990: 73). Similarly, an organizational climate that promotes innovation will encourage employee to engage in innovative behaviours because such climate legitimates experimentation (West Wallace, 1991) and reduces image risk involved in such behaviours (Ashford et al., 1998). An organization climate promoting innovation delivers expectancies and instrumentalities (Scott Bruce, 1994) so that the employees in that organization understand that being innovative is a desirable image. Reduced potential image loss risks and increased potential image gain environment encourage employees to engage in more innovative behaviours when perceived organization support for innovation is high. Employees in an organization supporting innovation may want to engage in more innovative behaviours not only because of the potential image outcomes but also because they have higher expectations for positive performance outcomes resulting from such innovative behaviours. A favourable organization climate for innovation demonstrates the belief that innovation will benefit the organization in developing and achieve the pinnacle of success. Having such beliefs embedded in the culture of the organization will influence individual attitudes and beliefs through the organization and boost innovation processes. SchneiderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s (1987) attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework suggests people attracted to and remaining in the organization are likely to be those individuals who share basic beliefs with the organization. Hence, it is logical to expect that compared with organisations not promoting innovative behaviours, people in organizations with pro-innovation climates are also more likely to have pro-innovation individual beliefs. In other words, they are more likely to be satisfied and believe that initiating innovations will benefit the efficiency and performance of their work. Such beliefs in positive performance outcomes serve as another motive for employee behaviour in the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the social-political perspective of expected image of expected image outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 3(a): Perceived organization support for innovation is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 3(b): Perceived organization support for innovation is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 3(c): Perceived organization support for innovation is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.2 Supervisor Relationship Quality A quality manager-employee relationship has been found out to be an important contextual factor on employee innovation and creativity (Scott Bruce, 1994; Tierney, Farmer, Graen, 1999). The prevalence of a quality relationship with supervisor will influence employee innovative behaviour indirectly through its influence on performance and image outcome expectations. A quality relationship between the managers and the employees will increase an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s belief that his or her innovative behaviour will result in performance and efficiency gains. The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that subordinates who have high-quality relationships with their supervisors are provided greater resources in the workplace (e.g., privileged information, work support) and decision latitude in return for greater loyalty and commitment (Dansereau, Graen, Haga, 1975; Graen, 1976; Graen, Novak, Sommerkamp, 1982). Therefore, employees with high-quality supervisor relationships are more likely to engage in innovative behaviour and be confident that their actions will result in performance and efficiency gains. Desire and motivation of the employees influence what he or she perceives (Gilbert, 1998; Markus Zajonc, 1985; Postman, Bruner, McGinnies, 1948). Research studies undertaken previously shows that supervisors tend to evaluate the employees they like and trust in a more positive way (Cardy Dobbins, 1986; Judge Ferris, 1993; Wayne Liden, 1995). When a supervisor likes and believes in the employee, he or she is more likely to think positively about the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ideas and believe such ideas are meaningful and significant (Zhou Woodman, 2003). Previous research on attributions concept indicates that when the supervisor likes or empathizes with his sub-ordinates, he or she is more likely to attribute positive outcomes to the sub-ordinatesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dispositional causes and negative outcomes to situational causes (Green Mitchell, 1979; Regan, Straus, Fazio, 1974; Regan Totten, 1975). It is expected that good people will perform good actions, and bad peopl e will perform bad actions. Thus when liked characters do good things or disliked actors do bad things, we attribute the action to characteristics of the character (Heider, 1958). Therefore, when perceiving a good relationship with the supervisor, an employee will feel more confident that his new ideas will receive acceptance and favourable evaluations from his supervisor, resulting in higher possibilities for image gains. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on the supervisor relationship quality Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 4(a): Supervisor relationship quality is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 4(b): Supervisor relationship quality is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 4(c): Supervisor relationship quality is positively related to expected image gains associated with innovative behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.3 Innovativeness as a Job Requirement The requirements of a job have been identified by researchers as an activating force for innovation (Kanter, 1988) and a primary factor in inducing employee creativity (Shalley, Gilson, Blum, 2000; Tierney Farmer, 2002). This dissertation explores the mechanisms through which perceived job requirement for innovativeness encourages individual innovation by its influences on both expected performance and image outcomes. The innovative requirement of a job is determined not only by the objective nature of the job position (e.g., RD scientists versus technicians) but also by the subjective attitude of the job holder, which can be influenced by factors including the job holderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s social environment as suggested by the social information processing theory (Salancik Pfeffer, 1978). Perceived innovativeness as a part of job requirement will also encourage innovative behaviour by minimising the concerns for image risks and increasing image gain expectations. Firstly, it val idates innovative behaviours as officially acceptable and socially appropriate. The job requirement serves as a contextual influence that justifies the employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ innovative behaviour. Thus, the employees do not need to provide reasons to explain their innovative behaviours and do not need to be concerned about being seen as behaving inappropriately. Secondly, previous research evidence shows that an audience is less critical and more receptive to change-initiated or innovative behaviours from people whose functional background or job position supports such innovative behaviours. Ashford and colleagues (1998) found out in their research that functional background-issue fit negatively related to image risk from selling issues. In the same way, Daft (1978) found out that organizations appeared to adopt technical ideas from professionals (in that case, teachers) and administrative ideas from administrators. Applying the same logic here, managers and fellow co-workers w ill be more receptive to the innovative behaviours of employees in positions requiring innovativeness and will consider their new ideas as more valid and well-grounded, resulting in lower image risk and higher potential of image gain for the innovative employees. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on reputation of an employee as innovative Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 5(a): Innovativeness as job requirement is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 5(b): Innovativeness as job requirement is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 5(c): Innovativeness as job requirement is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.4 Reputation of an Employee as Innovative The employees are considered as more socially appropriate and legitimate when their behaviours match categorizations and expectations of the organisation where they work in (Zelditch, 2001). The existing literature on impression management suggests that the impressions people try to create are affected by their current image in the society (Leary Kowalski, 1990; Schlenker, 1980). Behaviours which are consistent with the expectations and reputations (especially desirable ones) are socially legitimized, and behaviours against those expectations run the risk of being looked down upon by the people in the society. The employees who are not expected to be innovative in their work may hesitate to demonstrate innovative behaviour because they will be afraid to act against social expectations and to be considered as out of line or outcasts. On the contrary, an employee who enjoys the reputation of being innovative among his fellow workers will be more likely to engage in innovative behaviour because his or her reputation tends to legitimize the behaviour and reduce concerns for inappropriateness. Therefore, employees having such a reputation will be encouraged to show innovative behaviour by reducing concerns for image loss. A reputation of an employee as an innovative person builds oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s self-identity. Once an employee views or identifies himself or herself as an innovative person, their self-esteem will reinforce the positive view of innovation, strengthening the belief that innovations will make valuable contributions to performance or work efficiency. However a reputable innovative employee, although, may not necessarily expect that being innovative will further improve his or her image (Schlenker, 1980). The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on reputation of an employee as innovative Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 6(a): Reputation as an innovative employee is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 6(b): Reputation as an innovative employee is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. 2.6.5 Dissatisfaction with the Status Quo Dissatisfaction with the status quo is a proximal factor that makes employees conscious of the need to change (Farr Ford, 1990) and the importance of introducing new ideas, products, procedures and processes. Zhou and George (2001) found out in their research that job dissatisfaction, along with continuance commitment, supportive co-workers and organizational support for creativity, can lead to higher employee creativity. Schein (1971) suggested that employee innovativeness in a profession may come about either because of changes in the working environment or a misfit between individual value systems and the role demands of the particular job, which may cause dissatisfaction. The present dissertation define dissatisfaction with the status quo as an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dissatisfaction with the current performance or efficiency condition of his or her job role or work unit in the organization. Dissatisfaction determines the value of maintaining the status quo and catalyses the necessity for introducing something new to improve the current situation (Lant Mezias, 1992). Dissatisfaction with the status quo could arise for a number of reasons such as unfavourable performance evaluation, social comparison or environmental changes, personality traits (e.g., neuroticism), and discovery of potential improvement opportunities (Farr Ford, 1990). Dissatisfaction strengthens peopleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s beliefs that new ideas, products, procedures, or processes will improve efficiency and expected positive performance outcomes. This leads to generation of more innovative behaviours in the workplace. When organization is less effective in its functioning, employees are more likely to get credit for introducing new technologies and new ways to achieve objectives (Lant Mezias, 1992). In such a situation, employee innovative behaviours are more likely to be welcomed and accepted in the organisational social context. And employees who demonstrate innovative behaviours will be more likely to be considered as conscientious and competent increasing the potentials for image gain at the workplace. The following hypothesis has been developed based on analysing the above literature on dissatisfaction with the status quo Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Hypothesis 7(a): Dissatisfaction with the status quo is positively related to expected positive performance outcomes associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 7b: Dissatisfaction with the status quo is negatively related to expected image risks associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace. Hypothesis 7c: Dissatisfaction with the status quo is positively related to expected image gains associated with employee innovation behaviour at the workplace.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Las Vegas Gambling Ã¢â¬Å"Las Vegas looks the way youd imagine heaven must look at nightÃ¢â¬ states New York Times best selling novelist, Chuck Palahniuk. (1) He has a point. Las Vegas is, in a way, an American Mecca -- a national tourist hotspot filled with resorts, gambling, shopping, dining, drinking, sporting, nightlife and most other things entertainment. Las Vegas is the fastest growing city and fastest growing job market in the United States. (source?) The city, a sort of massive adult carnival, is made up of elements largely alien to its native desert setting. For one, Vegas welcomes almost 40 million visitors per year, a number nearly seventy times the population of the city; but also its drinking water and food are largely importedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite gamblingÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity in these camps of settlers, territory legislature banned gambling of all forms, and threatened strict punishment if caught. Nonetheless, the games continued in secret and when Nevada became a sta te in 1864, the ban on gambling was lessened and eventually removed for most forms of games in 1869. (3) In May of 1905, Las Vegas was officially founded in Southern Nevada, where gaming activity was already pervasive. There was little government regulation on gambling in the period between 1869-1900, until the progressive movement began to look upon gambling as immoral. States began to pass strict laws banning all forms of gambling. Nevada was the last holdout, permitting gambling until 1909 before the same bans were enacted. (4) The Nevada State Journal wrote, Ã¢â¬Å" Stilled eternally is the click of the wheel, rattle of the dice and swish of cards.Ã¢â¬ (5) Ã¢â¬Å"EternityÃ¢â¬ lasted less than a week, as citizens of Las Vegas quickly started lucrative underground gambling operations. Ã¢â¬Å" Games of chance were integral to southern Nevada in the 40 years preceding the banÃ¢â¬ ¦. a nation wide prohibition on gambling was not enough to eradicate gaming.Ã¢â¬ (6) Because N evada was the last state to ban gaming, a large gambling population from other states settled in Las Vegas before the ban was enacted in Nevada. As a result, Vegas was filled with passionate gamblers fromShow MoreRelatedEssay Las Vegas Casinos their Gambling1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Throughout Las Vegas history, Vegas have grown in tourism and residency to become more well known. From gambling clubs to casino and resorts, Las Vegas has grown to a little town to a big, bright city to theÃ¢â¬Å"Sin CityÃ¢â¬ . If all the laws and mafias that collaborated with the casinos and gambling clubs did not happen back then, our community of Las Vegas would not be as popular as we are today. Gambling goes way back into 1860Ã¢â¬â¢s in Nevada (Ã¢â¬Å"History of Gaming in NevadaÃ¢â¬ ). The history began around 1864Read MoreBuilding An Nfl Ready Stadium1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimprove the Las Vegas economy. Anytime that you can bring visitors here, especially and including international visitors, it has a huge impact and, uh, it would definitely have a big economic impact and community pride impact on the community, if in fact you can make the numbers work to put it together. Well, Las Vegas has a great reputation, as far as being a tourist center, but Las Vegas has morphed into something different. It used to be when I came to Las Vegas, it was a gambling destinationRead MoreThe City Of Las Vegas1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLas Vegas, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Sin CityÃ¢â¬ , is one of the most popular tourist spots in the world that I plan to take a vacation. It is constantly one of the fastest growing cities in the United States and the population is normally over a million people. 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The visitors, the demands of visitors, the marketplace, and how it is all offered has all changed visibly and rapidlyRead MoreCase Study : Las Vegas Sands Corp1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe strategy would be to expand into the already lucrative Macau casino market with one of the most successful casino/resort in the Las Vegas area, the Bellagio. MGM already has a foothold hold in Macau Market, which is provided due to a partnership with Pansy Ho and th e successful MGM Macau. The main competition in this area is: Las Vegas Sands Corp. (LVSC), which have 7 properties in the Macau area, Galaxy Entertainment Group (GEG), which have 3 properties and Wynn Resorts Ltd. (WYNN), whichRead MoreHockey Players Are Pretty Good People1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesplayers in this town? 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In the future the market alone is expected to grow at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 5% from the years 2016-2020Read MoreExecutive Summary : Mission Statement3504 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagessubsequently our hotel and casino will be located in Las Vegas, Nevada. Meanwhile there is a great amount of hotels and casinos in Las Vegas, which means we will have lots of competition. However our exclusive features and attractions will make our visitants choose our hotel and casino over others. Also our hospitality will set a standard for other hotels, and it will continue the flow of guests to our hotel B: Trading Area Analysis Las Vegas has a profitable business environment: taxes are moderately
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Disposable income Values of rubbish Overseas Factories Waste being sent overseas Seduced amp; Repressed Migrants Recycling Consumption Consumer society Explore the claim that a consumer society is always a Ã¢â¬Ëthrow-awayÃ¢â¬â¢ society. In this essay I will be outlining consumerism and claims that a consumer society is always a throw-away society. Consumption plays a big part in our lives and causes us to live in divided societies. It may make us feel like we fit in buying new gadgets and clothes and also give us that sense of belonging but we donÃ¢â¬â¢t take into account what happens to the old items and packaging. People do not want to look at the problems caused. I will use this essay with the evidence I have readÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We often question how our food and clothes can be sold so cheap, this all comes down to where it is made or grown. Our clothes are made overseas in factories by women and in some cases even children in unsuitable conditions. They work long hours and donÃ¢â¬â¢t get paid much in return, it is said to be less than what they can afford to live on and made to work extra hours. This is why large stores like Primark and Asda can sell their clothes at such little cost. Some of the workers are said to be working 60 to 90 hours every week for as little as Ã £17 per month. (Making social lives pg.88) The workers in the factories are grateful for their small wage and would struggle if the factories were to close and business was took elsewhere. The growth of consumption has caused a large increase in rubbish. This is due to people having more choice when out shopping. Many years ago women stayed at home and men went to work but now that both men and women are out earning there is a lot more disposable income which ends with people buying luxuries and upgrading items they already have. This results in the old ones being thrown away. People are constantly upgrading and renewing items to better models. Mobile phones bring out new models every year which people feel the need to buy to keep up with the trend and because they want the newest gadgets on the street. Pcs have changed to laptops which gives the pc no home except out to be collected on bin day. This causes a problemShow MoreRelatedSheilah Otieno. Professor Hax. T-Sem 102-65. April 4, 2017.1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSheilah Otieno Professor Hax T-Sem 102-65 April 4, 2017 Reflection paper This paper will reflect on the readings that we have done thus far, as well as ask the important question of how our daily lives, the things that we buy, use, and throw away, are all intertwined and built to impact climate change. Readings such as: Poverty, the environment, and the market, Tangled routes, the story of stuff, and This Changes everything gave us a glimpse into how humans are the primary contributors to climateRead More Constructing Fantasy in Hitchcocks Vertigo Essay3254 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesSpecifically, Vertigo offers its most exciting ideas when contextualized in a culture of consumerism. Consumerism shaped the film, and also shapes the way we view it. The desire of the consumer is the driving force behind not only our economy, but our mode of seeing the world, and seeing films. As consumers, we are always looking for, and looking at, new commodities, especially clothing. We gaze at clothing in shop windows. We purchase it and wear it, making it visible to others . Indeed, the desire toRead MoreEssay on The Fast Food Culture is Detroying America4188 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesjobs we find ourselves going to day-in and day-out, and the way these jobs encourage us to see the world we live in. 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The average person, or even the average user, may begin to watch a documentary, say on meth, and be disturbed by the graphic nature and turn it off claiming that Ã¢â¬Å"would never happen to them.Ã¢â¬ The reality of the matter is that dramasRead MoreThe Analysis of Zara4664 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pag escomplex process are necessary to be simplified. And incorporate technology in process and tackles are to be taken after comprehensive measurements and analysis. There are opportunities of existing domains where the company may progress and are going to explore. This assignment is going to analyze the market environment and making some achievable plans for the future. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019
My Educational Goals and Future Aspirations Essay With humility and hopefulness, I apply for the Dream Fund Bursary. My name is Kayla Lajeunesse. I am currently in grade 12 attending Frank Hurt Secondary, an inner-city school in the Newton neighbourhood of Surrey, BC. I have an Honour Role standing, and maintain active involvement in my school and community. In everything I do, I feel the need to push beyond my capabilities, to reach above and beyond. Since I first began school, Ive enjoyed it. From kindergarten to grade 7, I attended George S. Vanier Elementary in the Surrey School district. In grade 8, I transitioned into Frank Hurt Secondary, the nearest high school. Over the last five years at Frank Hurt, I have not only enjoyed school, but learned to take it seriously as an opportunity to enrich my future. From Planning 10, I have realized that education is the path to a good life. Your whole future depends on it. I knew immediately that I wanted to pursue post secondary Education. Last year my passion for continuing education was further inspired by my experience in a concurrent studies course at Kwantlen Polytechnic Universitys Surrey Campus. I believe in lifelong learning; I believe if you are not learning, whether it is ÃÅ"life learning or formal schooling, you are not living up to your highest potential. I have had many constructive influences that have shaped my enthusiasm for social work. I believe that the role of a social worker can make a difference. Even if it is a small thing, like helping to get dental work, or advocating for the betterment of the child. If you are a social worker you have the privilege to empower strong decision-making that can help enhance a childs life. I want to be a life advisor, a fearless women, and a life-saving person. As I consider where to pursue my post-secondary education I have shared many conversations with people I trust. With confidence, I have decided to work towards a career in social work. After discussing possible options with family, teachers, social workers, youth workers and counselors it became clear that social work aligns with both my values and skills. Intent on making this dream possible, I have already applied to the University of the Fraser Valley. This decision enables me to stay within a short distance from the school, and maintain proximity to family. I value both my time and family, and these considerations are central to my decision. In the future, I want to be a social worker in order to give back, and help kids. Over the last three years, I have had my share of foster parents and social workers that have not had time or resources to meet my needs. I do not want to sound like social workers do not care, I understand that these are many issues within the system that prevent social workers from doing the job right. Because of my experiences, I hope to be the type of social worker that wants to be there; that takes the time to listen; that gets to know the children; and advocates for a system that will benefit everyone in the end. I have seen first hand children that have been exposed to traumatic experiences. Some children have needs that arent being met and this leaves me in heart wrenching pain. To see someone go through such a significant struggle inspires me. I have been there, with nothing: My only wish is to give back what I have been given. Because of my experiences, I will be the type of social worker that wants to be there; that takes the time to listen; that gets to know the children; and advocate for a system that will benefit everyone in the end. My Challenges and Obstacles For the last three years, I have been in the foster care system. Before then, I lived in an abusive home and spent my grade 8 year living out of a car. During this time, my mom would bring me to her friends houses to shower, and once left me at a classmates house for three weeks. Some days I missed school because she could not afford the bus fare to get me there. Essay On Character In Ragtime El DoctorowMore than a motivating form of exercise and art, the team environment of cheer has enriched my understanding of sharing space with others. Understanding how to physically and socially work together is an important part of a successful cheer team. I have been captain of my school cheer team for the past two years and my community cheer team for the last seven. As captain, I model the skills of cheer as a sport and model communication that builds community and respects my teammates. I have noticed that the way that the senior cheerleaders treat the team and sport shapes the development of the juniors. Perhaps my greatest achievement is the strong mentor relationships I share with my foster siblings. I have been a supportive shoulder for my younger foster siblings. I have seen first hand children have needs that are not being met. This leaves me in heart wrenching pain. To see someone go through such a significant struggle inspires me. The children in the care home that I am living in have to fight the temptation each day to conquer their self-limiting beliefs because it is just that, that keep them from achieving their full potential. I take on the role of big sister for them, I care about and for them: I advocate for them. The children of my community are a part of me. Recognizing my strengths as a peer mentor, my current youth worker encouraged me to volunteer at Options Community Centre. It is a place where children can go and connect with youth in a safe and supportive environment. From baking to reading, and conversation to play I developed healthy relationships with the children in the community. My experiences growing up have given me unique insight into how important even the simplest childhood experiences are. I have harnessed my own power to create good things for myself and my community and I am honoured to have had the opportunity to pass them on. Over the last year, I have volunteered in Morgan Heights Crossing, a local seniors residence. One particular resident at Morgan Heights Crossing suffers from dementia. One afternoon, I was lost in a constant struggle solving mathematical problems and this female resident spoke eagerly asking what I was doing, and if there was anyway that she could help take some of the pressure off. She mentioned that she had been a high-school math teacher for many years. She explained how teaching math is something that she has always had a passion for. Helping me work through the problems, I succeeded in finishing my worksheet. To me, it was a struggle, and for her it needed to be fixed. Experiences like this give me hope that I will be able to share my gifts and passions. What began as service I was giving became a lesson I received. Through all my service, I notice my own growth and acknowledge the gifts others have to offer. The diversity of my experiences and successes continue to shape who I am. Along with the experiences I have shared, I have been a peer tutor in the BASES special education class; involved in Cadets, Global Issues Club, Run for Cancer; and as volunteer with EJS School of Fine Arts Musical Theatre. I value all the opportunities I have had to enrich my life and contribute to others. I look forward to continuing to develop my sense of self, recognizing that the successes and achievements I gain are gifts I can share back with my community.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Which Orange Juice Has the Most Vitamin C Paper Vitamin C which is also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate is a water-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient to the humans and other animals. It does not have any smell and usually, it is a white solid whose chemical formula is given as C6H8O6. The oxidation process that leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid is readily reversible. The deficiency of the vitamin in humans is known to cause scurvy; this is where the term was derived from implying its role in prevention of the disorder (Hilary Hickey, 2004). Citrus fruits and the juices they give contain a varying concentration of vitamin C. Fruits with a high vitamin C concentration include oranges, peaches, grapes, bananas, strawberries and lemons. There are also other kinds of foods that contain adequate amount of vitamin C. These include: potatoes, beans, cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower, broccoli, and tomatoes (http://www.exrx.net/Nutrition/Antioxidants/VitaminC.html).Vitamin C in dietary supplements is found in a variety of forms, more specifically on the basis of its efficiency and its degree of availability to the tissues after it has been administered. According to recent researches, the biological activity of natural and synthetic ascorbic acid is the same; the two forms of vitamin C are identical in chemical structure. Vitamin C in the human body is used in the production of collagen which makes the connective tissue. It also increases the ability of the body to absorb iron, a major constituent of blood, thus helping in red blood cell formation. As a result, the immune system is given strength to fight against infections. Recent studies indicate that Vitamin C has the potential of preventing cancer (Higdon, 2006).Vitamin C in OrangesHumans do not have the enzyme that can be used in the conversion of Glucose to ascorbic acid. Therefore, their bodies are not able to synthesize Vitamin C. For this reason, it is advisable that a healthy diet be composed of a great amount of Vitamin C (http://www.e xrx.net/Nutrition/Antioxidants/VitaminC.html). Reports indicate that oranges have a high content of Vitamin C; besides, oranges are commonly consumed in a majority of the households. There are a variety of orange types for instance, navel, Persian, blood, and Valencia oranges. The acidity level of the fruits ranges from 2.5 to 3, and this is largely affected by the age, type and size of the fruit; however they are not as sour as lemons (Articlebase, 2007).Two types of juices can be made from oranges namely: hand squeezed and orange concentrate. The hand squeezed orange juice is made by draining the fruit pulp using a Ã¢â¬Å"juicer or a squeezerÃ¢â¬ . The concentrate on the other hand, is made from fresh fruits and orange juice that has been filtered and is usually in frozen state. There has been a heated debate on what kind of orange juice has the highest content of vitamin C. Similarly, various experiments and researches have been carried out to evaluate the vitamin C content in orange concentrate and fresh orange juice. In two experiments carried out by Terpstra, (April 2005), freshly squeezed juice had a high concentration of vitamin C, compared to the orange concentrates. The orange flavored drinks did not have any vitamin C in them. Similar experiments also have yielded results indicating that the hand-squeezed orange juice contains the highest amount of vitamin C. Exceptions occurred in orange juice concentrates that contained a high concentration of vitamin C (http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/fink4k0/public_html/pages/exp2.html).Factors that inhibit the concentration of Vitamin CThe destruction of vitamin C in most cases takes place during the preparation of food, partly due to the reason that Vitamin C is very sensitive to heat, light and air (Larsen, 2009). During chopping, cooking and boiling, the orange is out in the open hence gets contaminated. But very low temperature preserve vitamin C in oranges, e.g. when kept in a freezer. Availability of o xygen to the oranges lowers the content of Vitamin C in them. As a matter of fact, oranges have a high content of vitamin C if picked while they are less ripe, for instance the Navel oranges mature early. Contributing factors to this include the nitrogen level of the soil and the temperatures in the surrounding: cooler temperatures and soils with low nitrogen concentration preserve vitamin C by inhibiting the rate of ripening. That is why in regions with high temperature, yield fruits of low vitamin C concentration. However, a good amount of potassium is required for production of high vitamin C (LÃ ³pez et al., 2007).Oxygen is the major destroying agent in orange juice since it causes breakdown of ascorbic acid. But also, fructose which is a sugar constituent in oranges can degrade vitamin C. In another perspective, availability of higher levels of citric and malic acid in oranges makes vitamin C resistant to degradation. To preserve the vitamin C concentration, cold temperature a nd obstruction to oxygen should be observed (Shi, 2006). The nature of the container in which the juice is stored also can alter the amount of vitamin C in oranges. Enamel containers have been found to lose more vitamin C compared to tin cans, because of the left over oxygen and vitamin C reacting with the container. Glasses are also unsuitable for storage due to their inability to preserve vitamin C. Hence the preference of storing oranges in carton boxes, which are opaque, thus light is prevented form reaching the fruits. Frozen juices are equally stored in cardboard cans sealed with a foil to conserve vitamin C from oxygen degradation (Lozano, 2006).The parameters employed in production of different kinds of orange juice affect the concentration of vitamin C. There is usually a very high concentration of Vitamin C in frozen concentrated orange juice and reconstituted frozen concentrated orange juice which is attributed to the blending of early-season fruit with late season fruit. Consequently, canned orange juice, as a result of intense heating in the course of canning, has a reduced amount of vitamin C (Tang, 2002). Exposure of the fruit bearing tree to sunlight augments the level of Vitamin C; therefore, fruits that appear to the outer part of the tree and towards the direction of the sun have higher amounts of vitamin C, whereas in regions where there is limited sunlight, there is low concentration of vitamin C in the oranges. Additionally, different kinds of fruits have dissimilar times of maturity. Oranges that mature within a short period of time have a higher concentration of vitamin C as compared to those that take longer to mature (Townsend, 2006).ConclusionAccording to the available research, hand-squeezed orange juice contains a high amount of Vitamin C. Orange juice concentrates have a higher concentration of Vitamin C because they are made out of oranges that are early maturing and those that take longer to mature. The other kinds of drinks tha t are orange flavored do not contain any vitamin C in them, but contain preservatives that could be harmful tot the human health. Orange juice that is canned contains a low concentration of vitamin C which is as a result of high heat exposure during processing. It is thus recommended that hand-squeezed orange juice is the best for consumption because it is pure fresh and has a high concentration of vitamin C.References:Articlebase, The Truth About Vitamin C in Orange Juice (2007), retrieved on March, 23rd 2009, from: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/the-truth-about-vitamin-c-in-orange-juice-161458.htmlFinkler-kemeny, K. (n.d) Experiment: Concentrate or Hand- squeezed? Retrieved on March, 23rd 2009, from: http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/fink4k0/public_html/pages/exp2.htmlHigdon, J. (2006): Vitamin C, Micronutrient information centre, Linus Pauling InstituteHilary, H Hickey, S. (2004): Ascorbate, ISBN 1411607244, 9781411607248, Lulu.comLarsen, J. (2009) Ask the Dietitian SM. Retrieved on March 23rd, 2009, from: http://www.dietitian.com/vitaminc.html.LÃ ³pez, A., Ros-Chumillasa, M., Belissarioa,Y Iguaza, A.Ã (2007): Quality and shelf life of orange juice aseptically packaged in PET bottles, Journal of Food Engineering, Vol 79, issue 1, 2007, pp 234-242Lozano, J.E. (2006): Fruit Manufacturing: Scientific Basis, Engineering Properties, and Deteriorative Reactions of Technological Importance, ISBN 0387306145, 9780387306148, SpringerShi, J. (2006): Functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals: processing technologies ISBN 0849324416, 9780849324413, CRC PressTang, J. (2002): Advances in bioprocessing engineering, ISBN 9810246978, 9789810246976, World ScientificTerpstra, C. (April 2005): Vitamin C in Orange Juice, Retrieved on March 23rd, 2009, from:Ã http://www.oaml.com/PDF/040152.pdf)Townsend, C. (2006): Vitamin C and Citrus Juices, Retrieved on March 23rd, 2009 from: http://www.ultimatecitrus.com/vitaminc.html.Vitamin C (2009): Retrieved on Ma rch 23rd, 2009, from: http://www.exrx.net/Nutrition/Antioxidants/VitaminC.html)